The Alphabet Soup of Food Safety (Part I)

FSMA. FSSC22000. GFSI. HAACP. SQF. Stop! My head hurts.

This is the likely reaction of anyone performing a deep dive into the intricacies of the world’s food safety standards. But understanding the acronyms of the various entities involved in food safety is well worth the time and effort if you are a food manufacturer or supplier. Why? Because the safety standards – a mix of voluntary, industry-led guidelines and government mandated regulations – will likely play an important, perhaps even decisive role in your business going forward.

What follows is the first of a two-part blog on helping food manufacturers and their suppliers – here and abroad – understand the key organizations and programs involved in safeguarding the global food supply.

Ready? Let’s jump in . . .

FSMA — This is the Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 passed by Congress and signed into law by former President Barack Obama. It is watershed legislation because of its dramatic shift in focus from dealing with foodborne illness outbreaks after they occur to preventing them (as much as possible) from happening in the first place.

The rules and procedures in FSMA took regulators from the Food and Drug Administration more than five years to draw up and finalize. Much of the work (as this post demonstrates) was based upon already existing food safety procedures and guidelines. Implementation is now underway using compliance timetables generally related to the size of companies. FSMA applies to farmers and growers (but not cattle ranchers), manufacturers and processors, as well as shippers. Its provisions also apply to companies that http://www.sqfi.comimport food into the U.S.  Food, under FSMA, is both for humans and animals.

(In the U.S., government agencies and academia have teamed up to create the Food Safety Preventive Controls Alliance (FSPCA) to help train companies on how to meet FSMA’s regulations).

HAACPHazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is an internationally accepted management program for reducing potentially dangerous hazards in food. HAACP forms the basis of the new food safety act as well as voluntary food safety certification programs.

A HACCP System requires that potential hazards be identified and controlled at specific points in the manufacturing, storing and distribution process along the global food chain. This includes biological, chemical or physical hazards. Any company involved in the manufacturing, processing or handling of food products can use HACCP to minimize or eliminate food safety issues from occurring. (The language in FSMA refers to “preventive controls,” which largely build upon HAACP principles).

GFSIThe Global Food Safety Initiative is a Paris-based association of major food companies that promulgates food safety protocols (or “schemes) for food companies.  It was formed in 2000 in response to a series of serious food safety crises. GFSI is a voluntary organization. Industry-led committees and workgroups formulate schemes, which serve as benchmarks for companies that want to gain GFSI certification. Although it has a global reach, GFSI’s schemes have been adopted more internationally than in the U.S.

SQFThe Safe Food Quality Institute is a standard-setting, voluntary organization for the food industry, with a focus on U.S. based food retailers. The SQF Program is recognized by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) as a Food Safety Management Systems Certification program (see more below).

ISO The International Organization for Standards, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is an independent, non-governmental organization of some 163 national standard setting bodies. The standards, many thousands in all, cover a wide range of industries (including the human and animal food industry) through “best practice” specifications for products, services and systems. The standards are voluntary – they don’t carry the force of law – and are based on consensus of relevant national standard setting bodies.

Importantly, ISO itself does not provide certification that a company has met its standards; this is done by external certification bodies (such as SQF). Once certified, a company can promote its compliance with the ISO standard.

FSSC 22000 – This is a Food Safety Management System (FSMS) Certification Scheme. Certification is granted to retailers, manufacturers, suppliers and others when the companies have implemented prevention-based hazard food safety controls and a third-party auditor has audited the system to verify that it complies with its requirements.

FSSC 22000 is a certification program recognized by GFSI. In April, 2017, it issued its 15,000th certificate.

Whew! That’s a lot of information to absorb. The point is that taken as a whole, these organizations are all about establishing and maintaining worldwide food safety standards. In Part II, we’ll show you how these organizations compare to, and differ from, regulatory efforts via the new American food safety law, and why that law is both evolutionary and revolutionary in its scope and intent.

 

 

 

 

 

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